FUNCTIONAL APPROACH
TO PREGNANCY AND
STRENGTH TRAINING

PREPARING MOTHERS FOR
THE MIRACLE OF LIFE!

Not to long ago, it was presumed that going through pregnancy and strength training exercises might be too stressful and cause injury during pregnancy. However, it is now widely recognized in both the fitness and medical communities that strength training provides many outstanding benefits to a woman’s overall prenatal and postpartum physical and mental well-being.

Benefits of Strength Training during Pregnancy:

• Controls excessive weight gain.

• Reduces or avoids common pregnancy and postpartum discomforts.

• Builds adequate strength for lifting and carrying your baby and heavy baby-equipment.

• Improves your overall state of mind during and after pregnancy.

• Helps you cope better with the stressors of pregnancy and new motherhood


Pregnancy and Strength Training: A Functional Approach

Prenatal strength training programs should always seek to counterbalance the alignment changes and system-wide functional muscular imbalances that occur in specific muscle groups during pregnancy. To maintain safety and achieve the best exercise-results, you will want to become familiar with the muscles most affected during this time.

Muscles that Weaken during Pregnancy:

• Hamstring; back of the thigh

• Gluteals; buttocks

• Abdominals: more details given below

• Upper back extensors

• Low and mid fibers of the Trapezius

• External rotators of the shoulder girdle

• Serratus Anterior; scapular depression

For more background on muscular imbalances during pregnancy, please consult the Physiological Adaptations of Pregnancy page of this web site.


Importance of Neutral Spine while Exercising during Pregnancy

When strength-training during pregnancy, select exercises that require you to support and stabilize your spine in the neutral position. These types of exercises, also called core conditioning or functional exercises, train the torso and limbs to work synergistically and improve body mechanics.

Benefits of the Neutral Spine Position during Exercise

• Supports and protects the spine; strengthens deep core muscles • Maintains good posture

• Prevents or lessens muscular imbalances

• Avoids many pregnancy related problems such as back pain

• Distributes the load evenly through vertebral discs

• Promotes efficient movement

• Avoids injuries that can occur from weak core-muscles

• Avoids injuries due to ligament laxity

Pregnancy Exercise: Integrate Strength Training and Core Conditioning for Best Results

Resistance training exercises that require neutral spine stabilization simultaneously build core control together with strong, powerful limbs, and are far superior to other exercise modalities that either isolate one muscle group or rely on external support to stabilize the spine.

Most traditional resistance machines have back rests or other features that support your spine and torso while your legs or arms perform repetitions. Over time, these types of exercises can do more harm than good. Because the spine is passive in these exercises, it does not need do any work to support itself. Strength and power is developed in the limbs without the necessary corresponding functional strength and control in the torso. What results is a weak, non-integrated core with strong powerful limbs. This sets the stage for injury, and is especially problematic during pregnancy.

Some Exercises that Integrate Resistance Training and Core Conditioning:

• Squats and lunges, using either your body weight or free weights.

• Both upper- and lower-body cable-pull exercises performed either standing or seated.

• Standing heel rises, employing either your body-weight or free-weights.

• Standing or side-lying leg extensions, using your body weight, resistance bands or tubing, ankle weights, a weighted bar, or similar devices.

• Front, side, and back flies, performed with free weights, resistance bands or tubing.

• Compound rows, done with resistance bands, tubing, or cables.

• Most of the seated Pilates reformer exercises.

• Certain yoga postures, such as the plank pose.

• Easy Ballet barre exercises.

Many of the above exercises can be performed seated on a large exercise ball to enhance core muscle activation.

When performing core exercises, always remember to engage the deep abdominal muscles (i.e. tighten your internal girdle) at the start of each exercise, and then maintain the compression of the abdominal wall throughout the entire sequence.


Pregnancy Exercise: Emphasize Form Over Resistance Level

Remember, resistance training augments everything—both the good and the bad. While always essential, maintaining good form is never more crucial than during pregnancy. As pregnancy advances and the weight of your baby grows, it will become more difficult for you to maintain a neutral spine. Always lower the resistance or weight load to where you can maintain proper positioning without undo effort.


Crucial Tips for Maintaining Proper Exercise Form:

• For safety and efficacy, assume only positions that encourage your spine to support itself in the neutral position during exercise.

• At the start of each exercise, contract your deep abdominal muscles, i.e. tighten your internal girdle

• Maintain the compression of the abdominal wall throughout your repetitions.

• Maintain neutral spine: don’t flatten your lower back or arch your spine, or allow the spine to wobble or twist.

• Lower the your resistance or weight-lifting levels as pregnancy progresses. Never sacrifice good form.

• Avoid exercise machines or devices that build power in the limbs with a passive or non-supported spine.

• Sit a yoga block or large exercise ball to help maintain a neutral spine position if sitting on the floor becomes too cumbersome.

• Never use momentum when using free weights.

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